Munson Health
Related Information

Back to Document

by Scholten A


Symptoms may include:


Osteoporosis in Hip
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)

Types of hormone replacement therapies include:
  • Estrogens
  • Progesterone
  • Combinations of estrogen and progesterone
  • Low amounts of male hormones
HRT is available as tablets, gels, skin patches, vaginal rings, vaginal tablets, injections, and pellets inserted into the skin.
There are a number of possible risks associated with HRT , such as:

Healthful Diet

A healthful diet during menopause can improve your sense of well-being. It may also reduce the risk of heart disease, osteoporosis, and certain cancers. The diet should be low in fat. It should include plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Your diet should also include enough calcium and vitamin D.

Limit Caffeine and Alcohol

Caffeine and alcohol may increase your symptoms of anxiety and insomnia. They can also increase your loss of calcium. If you drink alcohol, only drink in moderation. Moderation is 1-2 drinks per day.

Quit Smoking

Smoking can increase the risk of early menopause, heart disease, and osteoporosis.

Regular Exercise

Weight-bearing exercises like walking and climbing stairs, and strength exercises may also decrease your risk of osteoporosis, especially in women who are inactive. Aerobic exercise may reduce some symptoms of menopause in women who are inactive.

Stress Management

Stress management may help ease tension, anxiety, and other menopausal symptoms. Deep breathing, massage, warm baths, and quiet music are examples of relaxation techniques.

Over-the-Counter Products

Vaginal moisturizers and vaginal lubricants are used to help vaginal dryness.

Nonhormonal Medications for Hot Flashes

  • Medication may be prescribed to reduce symptoms of hot flashes including:
    • Certain blood pressure medications
    • Antiseizure medications
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)


Healthy Women

The North American Menopause Society



Health Canada

Women's Health Matters



Menopause. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: . Updated January 15, 2013. Accessed April 18, 2013.

Menopause. Planned Parenthood Federation of America website. Available at: . Accessed April 18, 2013.

Menopause 101: A primer for the perimenopausal. North American Menopause Society website. Available at: . Accessed April 18, 2013.

9/30/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. Available at: : Jacobson BC, Moy B, et al. Postmenopausal hormone use and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux. Arch Intern Med . 2008;168:1798-1804.

1/30/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. Available at: : Borrelli F, Ernst E. Black cohosh ( Cimicifuga racemosa ): a systematic review of adverse events. Am J Obstet Gynecol . 2008;199:455-466.

1/30/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. Available at: : Kaszkin-Bettag M, Ventskovskiy BM, et al. Confirmation of the efficacy of ERr 731 in perimenopausal women with menopausal symptoms. Altern Ther Health Med . 2009;15:24-34.

4/14/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. Available at: : Archer DF, Dupont CM, et al; Study 319 Investigators. Desvenlafaxine for the treatment of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of efficacy and safety. Am J Obstet Gynecol . 2009;200:238.e1-238.e10. Epub 2009 Jan 24.

11/4/2013 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. Available at: : Moilanen JM, Mikkola TS, et al. Effect of aerobic training on menopausal symptoms—a randomized controlled trial. Menopause. 2012 Jun;19(6):691-696.


Revision Information