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Osteoporosis

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by Carson-DeWitt R
 

Definition

Osteoporosis occurs when bones become weak and brittle. If left unchecked, it can lead to fracture. Any bone can be affected. Fractures of special concern are of the hip , spine , and wrist .
Osteoporosis
osteoporosis bone
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Risk Factors

Osteoporosis is more common in women than in men. Other factors that may increase your chance of developing osteoporosis include:
 

Treatment

The treatment and management of osteoporosis involves lifestyle changes and medications. Although osteoporosis is highly preventable, it cannot be cured. Treatment focuses on reducing the incidence of fractures and slowing bone loss.

Lifestyle Changes

Nutrition
Decrease your intake of alcohol. Eat a balanced diet rich in calcium and vitamin D. Calcium is in:
  • Dairy products
  • Green leafy vegetables
  • Canned fish with bones
  • Calcium-fortified products
Exercise
Exercise improves bone health. It also increases muscle strength, coordination, and balance. Do weight-bearing and strength-training exercises for maximum benefit. Balance training may help prevent falls and fractures.
Dietary Supplements
People who cannot eat enough calcium from food might want to take calcium supplements. Vitamin D and other supplements may also be recommended. Talk with your doctor before taking herbs or supplements.
Safety Measures
Falls can increase the chance of fracture in someone with osteoporosis. Here are ways to prevent falls:
  • Floors—Remove all loose wires, cords, and throw rugs. Minimize clutter. Make sure rugs are anchored and smooth. Keep furniture in its accustomed place.
  • Bathrooms—Install grab bars and non-skid tape in the tub or shower.
  • Lighting—Make sure halls, stairways, and entrances are well lit. Install a night light in your bathroom. Turn lights on if you get up in the middle of the night.
  • Kitchen—Install non-skid rubber mats near sink and stove. Clean spills immediately.
  • Stairs—Make sure treads, rails, and rugs are secure.
  • Other precautions—Wear sturdy, rubber-soled shoes. Keep your intake of alcoholic beverages to a minimum. Ask your doctor whether any of your medications might cause you to fall.

Medications

Your doctor may prescribe medications to help prevent bone loss, increase bone density, and reduce your risk of fractures. These may include:
  • Bisphosphonates
  • Medications with estrogenic effects
  • Other medications
 

Prevention

To help reduce your chance of developing osteoporosis, take these steps:
  • Eat a balanced diet rich in calcium and vitamin D
  • Perform weight-bearing exercise
  • Live a healthy lifestyle (no smoking, drink alcohol only in moderation)
  • If you are a postmenopausal woman at high risk for bone fractures, medications may be appropriate to prevent osteoporosis
 

RESOURCES

NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases National Resource Center
http://www.niams.nih.gov

National Osteoporosis Foundation
http://www.nof.org

 

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Osteoporosis Canada
www.osteoporosis.ca

Women's Health Matters
http://www.womenshealthmatters.ca

 

References


Clinician's guide to prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. National Osteoporosis Foundation website. Available at: http://www.nof.org/files/nof/public/content/file/950/upload/523.pdf . Updated 2013. Accessed July 22, 2013.


Ho-Pham LT, Nguyen ND, et al. Effect of vegetarian diets on bone mineral density: a Bayesian meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr . 2009;90:943-950.


Khosla L, Melton LJ. Clinical practice: osteopenia. N Engl J Med . 2007;356:2293-2300.


Making a diagnosis. National Osteoporosis Foundation website. Available at: http://nof.org/articles/8 . Accessed July 22, 2013.


Osteoporosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated July 15, 2013. Accessed July 22, 2013.


Sambrook P, Cooper C. Osteoporosis. Lancet . 2006;367:2010-2018.


10/6/2006 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : Cockayne S, Adamson J, Lanham-New S, et al. Vitamin K and the prevention of fractures: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med . 2006;166:1256-1261.


5/16/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : Qaseem A, Snow V, Shekelle P, Hopkins R Jr, Forciea MA, Owens DK; Clinical Efficacy Assessment Subcommittee of the American College of Physicians. Screening for osteoporosis in men: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med . 2008;148:680-684.


1/30/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : Loke YK, Singh S, Furberg CD. Long-term use of thiazolidinediones and fractures in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. CMAJ . 2009;180:32-39. Epub 2008 Dec 10.


12/29/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : Hippisley-Cox J, Coupland C. Predicting risk of osteoporotic fracture in men and women in England and Wales: prospective derivation and validation of QFractureScores. BMJ . 2009;339:b4229.


6/4/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : FDA approves new injectable osteoporosis treatment for postmenopausal women. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm214150.htm . Updated April 23, 2013. Accessed July 22, 2013.

 

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