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by Hollenstein J

(Stammering; Disfluent Speech)



National Stuttering Association

Stuttering Foundation of America



Canadian Stuttering Association

Institute for Stuttering Treatment and Research



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Sommer M, Koch MA, et al. Disconnection of speech-relevant brain areas in persistent developmental stuttering. Lancet. 2002;360:380-383.

What is stuttering? The National Stuttering Association website. Available at: Accessed May 20, 2013.

Yairi E, Ambrose NG. Early childhood stuttering: persistency and recovery rates. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 1999;42:1097-1112.


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