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American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons - American Academy of Pediatrics



Canadian Orthopaedic Association

Health Canada



Bono CM. Low-back pain in athletes. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery. 2004;86-A(2):382-396.

Eddy D, Congeni J, et al. A review of spine injuries and return to play. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 2005;15(6):453-458.

Herman MJ, Pizzutillo PD. Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis in the child and adolescent: a new classification. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research. 2005;(434):46-54.

Low-risk stress fractures. American Journal of Sports Medicine January 2001.

Peer KS, Fascione JM. Spondylolysis: a review and treatment approach. Orthopaedic Nursing. 2007;26(2):104-111.

Sakai T, Yamada H, et al. Lumbar spinal disorders in patients with athetoid cerebral palsy: a clinical and biomechanical study. Spine. 2006;31(3):E66-70.


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