Munson Health
 
Related Information
Parkinson's Disease

Back to Document

by Carson-DeWitt R

(PD; Paralysis Agitans; Shaking Palsy)

 

Symptoms

Symptoms of PD begin mildly. They will worsen over time.
PD may cause:
 

Treatment

Currently, there are no treatments to cure PD. There are also no proven treatments to slow or stop its progression. Some medications may help to improve symptoms. Over time, the side effects of the medication may become troublesome. The medications may also lose their effectiveness.

Surgery

Different brain operations are available, and many more are being researched including:
  • Deep brain stimulation (DBS)—implanting a device to stimulate certain parts of the brain; can decrease tremor and rigidity
  • Thalamotomy and pallidotomy—destroying certain areas of the brain to improve tremor when medication does not work (not as common as deep brain stimulation)
  • Nerve-cell transplants (research only)—to increase amount of dopamine made in the brain

Physical Therapy

Therapy can improve muscle tone, strength, and balance. It includes exercises and stretches. There is also evidence that tai chi may be beneficial.

Psychological Support

Consider joining a support group with other people with PD. It will help to learn how others are learning to live with the challenges of PD.
If you are diagnosed with PD, follow your doctor's instructions .
 

RESOURCES

National Parkinson Foundation
http://www.parkinson.org

Parkinson's Disease Foundation
http://www.pdf.org

 

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Health Canada
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

Parkinson Society Canada
http://www.parkinson.ca

 

References


Alvarez MVG, Evidente VGH. Understanding drug induced parkinsonism: separating pearls from oysters. Neurology. 2008;70:e32-34.


Li F, et al. Tai chi and postural instability in patients with Parkinson’s Disease. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(6):511-5199.


Liu R, Gao X, et al. Meta-analysis of the relationship between Parkinson disease and melanoma. Neurology. 2011;76:2002-2009.


Managing your PD. Parkinson’s Disease Foundation website. Available at: http://www.pdf.org/en/managing%5Fpd. Accessed September 5, 2013.


Nielsen NM, Rostgaard K, et al. Poliomyelitis and Parkinson disease. JAMA. 2002;287:1650-1651.


NINDS Parkinson's disease information page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/parkinsons%5Fdisease/parkinsons%5Fdisease.htm. Updated September 3, 2013. Accessed September 5, 2013.


Obeso JA, et al. Missing pieces in the Parkinson’s disease puzzle. Nature Medicine. 2010;16(6):653-661.


Parkinson disease. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated August 27, 2013. Accessed September 5, 2013.


Parkinson's disease. American Association of Neurological Surgeons website. Available at: http://www.aans.org/Patient%20Information/Conditions%20and%20Treatments/Parkinsons%20Disease.aspx. Accessed September 5, 2013.


Perlmutter JS, Eidelberg D. To scan or not to scan: DaT is the question. Neurology. 2012;78:688-689.


Ristić AJ, Vojvodić N, et al. The frequency of reversible parkinsonism and cognitive decline associated with valproate treatment: a study of 364 patients with different types of epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2006:47(12):2183-2185.


Samii A, et al. Parkinson's disease. Lancet. 2004;363:1783-1793.


Schenkman N, et al. Exercise for people in early- or mid-stage Parkinson disease: a 16-month randomized controlled trial. Phys Ther. 2012.


Siderowf A, et al. Update on Parkinson's disease. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138:651-658.


Wider C, Wszolek CK. Movement disorders: insights into mechanisms and hopes for treatments. Lancet Neurology. 2009;8(1):8-10.


1/4/2011 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Spinks A, Wasiak J, Bernath V, Villaneuva E. Scopolamine (hyoscine) for preventing and treating motion sickness. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(4):CD002851.


4/7/2014 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Marras C, Hincapié CA, et al. Systematic review of the risk of Parkinson's disease after mild traumatic brain injury: results of the international collaboration on mild traumatic brain injury prognosis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 Mar;95(3S):S238-244.

 

Revision Information