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Cerebral Palsy

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by Wood D

(CP)

 

Causes

CP occurs due to damage to areas of the brain that direct movement. This damage interferes with the brain's ability to control movement and posture. CP may develop before, during, or after birth.
Causes include:
 

Risk Factors

Factors that increase the risk of CP include:
 

Treatment

There is no treatment to cure CP. The brain damage cannot be corrected. Therapy aims to help the child reach his or her full potential. Children with CP grow to adulthood and may be able to work and live independently.

Medication

Drugs help control muscle spasms and seizures.

Surgery

Certain operations may improve the ability to sit, stand, and walk.

Physical Aids

Braces and splints help keep limbs in correct alignment and prevent deformities. Positioning devices enable better posture. Walkers , special scooters, and wheelchairs make it easier to move around.

Special Education

Programs designed to meet the child's special needs may improve learning. Some children do well attending regular schools with special services. Vocational training can help prepare young adults for jobs.

Rehabilitation Services

Speech, physical, and occupational therapies may improve the ability to speak, move, walk, and perform activities of daily living. Physical therapy helps strengthen muscles. Children can learn different ways to complete difficult tasks.

Family Services

Professional support helps a patient and family cope with CP. Counselors help parents learn how to modify behaviors. Caring for a child with CP can be stressful. Some families find support groups helpful.

Other Treatment

Therapeutic electrical stimulation might help.
 

Prevention

Several of the causes of CP that have been identified through research are preventable or treatable:
 

RESOURCES

4MyChild
http://www.cerebralpalsy.org

United Cerebral Palsy
http://www.ucp.org

 

CANADIAN RESOURCES

The Cerebral Palsy Association of BC
http://www.bccerebralpalsy.ca

Ontario Federation for Cerebral Palsy
http://www.ofcp.ca

 

References


Ashwal S, Russman BS, Blasco PA, et al. Practice parameter: diagnostic assessment of the child with cerebral palsy: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society. Neurology . 2004;62(6):851-863.


Cerebral palsy. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us . Updated December 14, 2012. Accessed February 1, 2013.


Cerebral palsy (CP). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/cp/index.html . Updated September 7, 2012. Accessed February 1, 2013.


Cerebral palsy: hope through research. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/cerebral%5Fpalsy/detail%5Fcerebral%5Fpalsy.htm . Updated August 23, 2012. Accessed February 1, 2013.


Hazneci B, Tan AK, Guncikan MN, Dincer K, Kalyon TA. Comparison of the efficacies of botulinum toxin A and Johnstone pressure splints against hip adductor spasticity among patients with cerebral palsy: a randomized trial. Mil Med . 2006;171(7):653-656.


Johnson SL, Blair E, Stanley FJ. Obstetric malpractice litigation and cerebral palsy in term infants. J Forensic Leg Med . 2011;18(3):97-100.


Nolan KW, Cole LL, Liptak GS. Use of botulinum toxin type A in children with cerebral palsy. Phys Ther . 2006;86(4):573-584.


Park ES, Park CI, Chang HC, Park CW, Lee DS. The effect of botulinum toxin type A injection into the gastrocnemius muscle on sit-to-stand transfer in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. Clin Rehabil . 2006;20(8):668-674.


Steinbok P. Selection of treatment modalities in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Neurosurg Focus . 2006;21(2):e4.


10/30/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us : Mergler S, Evenhuis HM, Boot AM, et al. Epidemiology of low bone mineral density and fractures in children with severe cerebral palsy: a systematic review. Dev Med Child Neurol . 2009;51(10):773-778.


2/4/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance : Delgado MR, Hirtz D, Aisen M, et al. Practice parameter: pharmacologic treatment of spasticity in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society. Neurology . 2010;74:336-343.


7/30/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance : United States Food and Drug Administration. FDA approves drug for chronic drooling in children. United States Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm220444.htm . Published July 28, 2010. Accessed July 30, 2010.

 

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