As a fitness professional, it is always difficult to go into a gym and watch others exercise. Why? Because there is mistake after mistake being committed everywhere I look—some potentially dangerous, others, well, useless. I am not alone in my observations, either. I went to some of the top trainers in North America to see what they felt were some of the most frequently performed workout blunders, and here is what they had to say.
Absolutely Abominable Abs
No doubt about it—abdominal work won as being the exercise most often performed incorrectly. In my opinion, though, some of the blame for this lies with the fitness industry. In group fitness classes, instructors lead participants in an infinite number of crunches, or as personal trainer Tony Golden calls it, "750 ballistic crunches a minute, with a complete lack of form or any idea of what they are doing."
The first thing to pay attention to with ab work is form. "The solution is to slowly squeeze the abdominal muscles, while keeping [the low back] in contact with the floor or mat," instructs Golden. "I tell people to imagine they have a grapefruit between their chin and their chest, and that the goal is to lift their shoulders off the floor, maintain eye contact with the ceiling at all times, and keep their abdominal muscles tightened during both the lifting and lowering stages of the crunch."
"Work at a slow speed, and position the elbows parallel to the ears," adds Amanda Vogel, MA. "You will be less likely to pull on the head and neck." Placing the hands just behind the ears, rather than lacing the fingers together helps, too.
Susan Cantwell, ,
recommends that once you are able to perform 15-25 correct crunches with ease, then you can add weight, declines, and stability balls. (Not necessarily all at once, though!) "My recommendations? Lower the amount of mind numbing reps you perform, and increase the difficulty of each individual repetition," advises Cantwell.
The Funky Chicken
"It amazes me how people somehow manage to do three sets of biceps curls in ten seconds," says Golden. "Their arms look like pistons flying through each repetition faster than a humming bird flaps its wings!" Part of the problem with this is that you do not move through a full range of motion, and therefore, are not working the muscle to its peak.
Another problem is that when you move the weights, or even just your limbs, this quickly "you are using too much momentum and not enough muscle," explains Cantwell.
"My advice for these folks? Slow down!" exclaims Golden. If you are seated on a weight bench, exhale slowly as you bring the dumbbels toward your shoulders. Hold your position by keeping your back, shoulders and feet in place. Then inhale and slowly lower the dumbbells by returning the weights to their starting positions.
The Hercules Syndrome
Attempting to lift too much weight is a common mistake, especially among men—and one that is potentially quite dangerous. Three things happen:
- You have a tendency to jerk the weight up, placing a tremendous amount of strain on the joints.
- You do not move through a full range of motion.
- You are using momentum, not muscle.
Combine these errors together, and you have got a recipe for injury. If you do not know your maximum weight, ask a trainer to help you determine it.
The Big Y (for Yawn, That Is)
"This one is so common that I consider it one of the main reasons that people drop out of their fitness programs," says Cantwell. "When people do not see results from their efforts, they begin to lose interest, and the boredom factor comes into play."Consider making a change when you start to feel boredom creep in or if you are not seeing any progression toward your fitness goals.
How can you mix up it up? "If you have been doing the same cardio program for months, try intensifying your workouts by adding interval training," says Vogel. "And take a look at your resistance training exercises. Do you always gravitate to the same machines or exercises?" Vogel suggests making an appointment with a qualified
every so often to have him or her evaluate your program and show you alternatives to your usual routine.
Stetching has been somewhat controversial over the last few years. Do you stretch or not? Does it help or not? You do have a couple of options.
If you want to adapt the way you approach your workout, you can. According to Brian Cowen, there are two main mistakes people make when it comes to stretching: not warming up first, and
quickly and erratically. He advises not using stretching as the warm-up. "The best warm-up for a run [or other aerobic activity] is to start off slow, then pick up your speed. Prior to lifting weights, you should warm-up with 15-20 minutes of light cardio. Save your stretching for after the run or workout when your muscles are warm and pliable."
Saddle bags, love handles, the old flapping wing under your arm…Think that by moving that specific trouble area you will magically make it disappear? Think again!
"Too often I have witnessed, especially women, still trying to spot reduce. They seem to neglect the body as a whole when they train, and want to set up programs designed to work specific areas only," says Amy Bomar.
Vogel recommends focusing on a total body conditioning program: cardio to burn fat, resistance training for all major muscle groups. "I really encourage people to avoid seeing body parts as problem areas," explains Vogel. "Instead, use fitness as a way to focus on the way your body moves and functions as a whole. Enjoy the experience of being fit!"
In addition to exercise, you may want to embark on a low-fat diet
Learn the Proper Techniques
Take the time to learn correct exercise form and function before you hit the gym. Read fitness magazines, books, and websites. Set up an appointment with a personal trainer. Many clubs offer or even require new fitness members to receive instruction on the equipment before setting off on their own. Use this time to ask questions and really try out the equipment. Take notes and schedule a second, third, or fourth appointment if you have to. Before you know it, you will be an old pro.
American Council on Exercise
The President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports
Canadian Academy of Sports Medicine
Battling Boredom. American Council on Exercise Get Fit website. Available at: http://www.acefitness.org/fitfacts/fitfacts%5Fdisplay.aspx?itemid=2611. Accessed January 3, 2013.
Bent-Knee Sit-Up/Crunches. American Council on Exercise Get Fit website. Available at: http://www.acefitness.org/exerciselibrary/52/bent-knee-sit-up-crunches/. Accessed January 3, 2013.
Kay AD, Blazevich AJ. Effect of Acute Static Stretch on Maximal Muscle Performance: A Systematic Review. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012:44(1):154-164.
Seated Dumbbell Bicep Curl. American Council on Exercise Get Fit website. Available at: http://www.acefitness.org/exerciselibrary/44/seated-dumbbell-bicep-curl. Accessed January 3, 2013.
The Basics of Starting and Progressing a Strength-Training Program. ACSM Fit Society page. American College of Sports Medicine website. Available at: http://www.acsm.org/docs/fit-society-page/2009-winter-fspn%5Fstrength-conditioning.pdf. Updated Winter 2009-2010. Accessed January 3, 2013.