Munson Health
 
Healthy Diet for Children Ages 2-11

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by Adams M

A Guide for Parents and Caregivers

During early childhood, every day is full of exploration and discovery. Food provides children with the calories they need to be active and the nutrients they need for proper growth and development. Here you will find information on your child’s nutritional needs and practical suggestions for a healthier diet.

Key Components of a Healthy Diet for Children

Adequate Calories

How many calories your child needs depends on age, sex, and activity level. You don’t usually need to worry about tracking calories with children as they are pretty good at self-regulating how much they need to eat. However, it is up to you to provide them with healthy food options and an adequate amount of food. Here are some tips on making sure your child gets the amount of calories :
  • Serve small portion sizes . Serving too much food at one time encourages overeating, but always give your child more food if desired. Do not limit the number of servings.
  • Children have small stomachs and short attention spans, so spread food out over the course of the day. But rather than allowing your child to graze all day, try to have set eating times—three meals and two or three snacks per day usually works well.
  • Focus on providing your child with a variety of nutrient-rich foods from all the different food groups and limit foods that are high in added sugar or fat.
  • Serve juice occasionally, or never. Do not serve soda at all. These drinks are full of sugar, and it's easy to fill up on them.

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for your child. About 45%-65% of their calories should come from carbohydrates. In general, try to choose healthy carbohydrate-rich foods, such as whole grains, fruit, vegetables, and milk. Limit foods that are high in refined flour or added sugar, such as white bread, non-whole grain crackers, cookies, juice, and soda.

Protein

Your child needs protein for growth and repair and to build muscle. About 5%-20% of your young child’s calories should come from protein. An older child should aim for 10%-30% of protein. Good sources of protein include poultry, lean meat, seafood, eggs, nuts, soy, legumes, and low-fat and nonfat dairy products.

Fat

Very young children need a little more fat than older children and adults. Children aged 2-3 should consume about 30%-40% of calories as fat, while those aged four and older should consume 25%-35% of calories as fat. Dietary fat provides essential fatty acids, which are especially important for proper growth and brain development in children. Your child’s fat intake should come mostly from healthy fats, such as those found in vegetable oils like canola and olive oil. Try nuts, avocados, olives, and fatty fish as well. Some fish with good fats include salmon, sardines, and tuna.

Vitamins & Minerals

Eating a variety of foods from each of the food groups will help ensure that your child gets all the vitamins and minerals that are needed for proper nutrition. If you feel your child’s diet is not as balanced as it could be, ask the pediatrician about multivitamin supplementation. One way to help ensure picky eaters get all of their vitamins and minerals is to buy fortified breakfast cereal.
While all vitamins and minerals are important, here are a few that are particularly important during childhood:
  • Calcium is essential for building strong bones and teeth. Good sources include milk, cheese, yogurt, tofu, calcium-fortified orange juice, calcium-fortified cereal, and canned salmon.
  • Vitamin D is necessary for the body to use the calcium that is consumed. Good sources of vitamin D include fortified milk, salmon, and egg yolks. Exposure to sunlight will allow your body to make vitamin D, but should be limited due to the dangers of too much sun exposure.
  • Not getting enough of iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia , which can affect your child’s growth and ability to learn. Good sources of iron include lean meats and fortified breakfast cereals.

Fiber

Diets high in fiber tend to be lower in total calories, fat, and cholesterol than diets that are low in fiber. What’s more, research shows that a high fiber intake may help prevent heart disease and certain kinds of cancer . Fiber can also prevent constipation and increase fullness following a meal. To be sure your child is getting enough fiber make sure whole grains make up half of the daily grain intake. Fruits and vegetables are also good sources of fiber with multiple nutritional benefits.

Physical Activity

While it may not be a nutrient, physical activity is a key component of any healthy diet. Structured exercise is usually not necessary at this age, but see to it that your kids spend at least one hour actively playing every day. Keep TV viewing to a minimum and limit the amount of time spent doing other sedentary activities, such as sitting in front of the computer or playing video games. When possible, get moving with your kids—whether it’s a walk around the block together or throwing a ball back and forth. All movement counts, and you are your child's number one role model.

Eating Guide for Children

This eating guide is based on the United States Department of Agriculture'sChoose My Plate. It lists the main food groups, examples of the recommended daily amount for different ages, as well as suggestions about which foods to choose in each group. The recommended daily amount varies based on your child’s age, weight, sex, and activity level. Use the daily amounts below as a starting guide, then go to the Choose My Plate or SuperTracker websites for more individualized recommendations.
Food Group Daily Amount *Key Suggestions
Grains (1 ounce = 1 slice bread, ¼ bagel, ½ cup cooked pasta or rice, 5 whole-wheat crackers)
  • 2 years old: 3 ounces
  • 5 years old: 5 ounces
  • 8 years old: 5 ounces
  • 11 years old, female: 6 ounces
  • At least ½ of grains should be whole grains
  • Whole grains include: whole wheat products, oatmeal, brown rice, barley, bulgur, popcorn.
Vegetables (1 cup = 1 cup raw or cooked vegetables, 2 cups raw leafy vegetables)
  • 2 years old: 1 cup
  • 5 years old: 1.5 cups
  • 8 years old: 2 cups
  • 11 years old: 2.5 cups
  • Offer your child a variety of different vegetables every day
  • Encourage more of the following types of vegetables:
    • Dark greens like broccoli, spinach, bok choy, or romaine lettuce
    • Orange vegetables like carrots, sweet potatoes, or butternut squash
    • Dry beans and peas like chickpeas, black beans, lentils, split peas, kidney beans, tofu
Fruits (1 cup = 1 cup fresh fruit, 1 cup fruit juice, ½ cup dried fruit)
  • 2 years old: 1 cup
  • 5 years old: 1.5 cups
  • 8 years old: 1.5 cups
  • 11 years old: 1.5-2 cups
  • Offer your child a variety of fruit
  • Choose fresh fruit over juices—limit juice to 4 ounces of 100% fruit juice per day
  • Choose dried, frozen, or canned juices without added sugar
Milk (1 cup = 8 ounces milk or yogurt, 1½ ounces natural cheese)
  • 2-8 years old: 2 cups
  • 9-11 years old: 3 cups
  • Choose low-fat or fat-free dairy products such as milk, yogurt, kefir, and cheese
  • Milk alternatives include calcium-rich or -fortified foods and beverages
Protein (1 ounce = 1 ounce meat, fish, or poultry; ¼ cup cooked, dry beans; 1 egg; 1 tablespoon peanut butter; ½ ounce nuts)
  • 2 years old: 2 ounces
  • 5 years old: 4 ounces
  • 8 years old: 5 ounces
  • 11 years old: 5-6 ounces
  • Choose lean meats and poultry
  • Eat more fish and vegetarian sources of protein, such as beans, peas, nuts, and seeds
Fats and Sweets
  • 2 years old: 165 calories
  • 5 years old: 170 calories
  • 8 years old: 130 calories
  • 11 years old: 195-265 calories
  • Limit solid fats such as butter, stick margarine, lard, and shortening
  • Look for products that contain no saturated or trans fats
  • Limit foods high in added sugar or solid fats like soda, candy, cookies, muffins, chips, French fries, and fried foods

Healthy Eating Ideas

Additional Suggestions

 

RESOURCES

Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
http://www.eatright.org

US Department of Agriculture Choose My Plate
http://www.choosemyplate.gov

 

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Dietitians of Canada
http://www.dietitians.ca

Health Canada Food and Nutrition
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

 

References


Gillman MW, Rifas-Shiman SL, Frazier AL, et al. Family dinner and diet quality among older children and adolescents. Arch Fam Med . 2000;9(3):235-240.


Health and nutrition information for preschoolers. US Department of Agriculture Choose My Plate website. Available at: http://www.choosemyplate.gov/preschoolers.html . Accessed February 15, 2013.


Nicklas TA, Hayes D, American Dietetic Association. Position of the American Dietetic Association: nutrition guidance for healthy children ages 2 to 11 years. J Am Diet Assoc . 2008;108(6):1038-1044.


Nutrition (pediatric preventive care). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what . Updated February 7, 2013. Accessed February 15, 2013.


Physical activity guidelines for Americans. Active children and adolescents. US Department of Health and Human Services. Available at: http://www.health.gov/paguidelines/guidelines/chapter3.aspx . Updated October 6, 2008. Accessed February 15, 2013.

 

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