Munson Health
 
Kidney Stones -- Child

Back to Document

by Montemayor MM

(Renal Colic—Child; Renal Lithiasis—Child; Nephrolithiasis—Child; Renal Calculi—Child)

 

Risk Factors

These factors increase your child’s chance of developing kidney stones:
  • Dehydration —not drinking enough fluids
  • Eating foods high in salt
  • Eating a ketogenic diet to help control epilepsy
  • Mineral content of water your child drinks (hardness or softness of the water)
  • Having family members who have had kidney stones or gout
  • Having kidney stones in the past
  • Being overweight
  • Medical conditions (eg, urinary tract infections , metabolic conditions)
  • Geographic location (residents of the Southeast United States have an increased risk)
  • Limited physical activity
  • Foreign material in the urinary tract (eg, catheter)
 

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Images of the kidneys and urinary tract may be taken with:
  • Ultrasound—to examine the kidneys
  • KUB (kidney, ureter, bladder)—an x-ray to view the urinary tract
  • Spiral CT scan—to make pictures of the inside of the kidney
  • Intravenous pyelogram (IVP)—a special x-ray that produces images of the urinary system (rarely used)
A 24-hour urine test may also be done to look for levels of minerals in the urine including calcium , phosphorus , uric acid, oxalate, and citrate.
 

RESOURCES

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
http://www.niddk.nih.gov

Urology Care Foundation
http://www.urologyhealth.org

 

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Health Canada
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

The Kidney Foundation of Canada
http://www.kidney.ab.ca

 

References


Bladder/kidney stones. Cincinnati Children’s Hospital website. Available at: http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/health/info/urinary/diagnose/bladder-kidney-stones.htm#causes. Updated January 2011. Accessed June 25, 2013.


Borghi L, Meschi T, Maggiore U, Prati B. Dietary therapy in idiopathic nephrolithiasis. Nutr Rev. 2006;64:301-312.


Kidney stones. National Kidney Foundation website. Available at: http://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/kidneystones.cfm. Accessed June 25, 2013.


Nephrolithiasis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 17, 2013. Accessed June 25, 2013.


6/23/2014 DynaMed's systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Elderwy AA, Kurkar A, et al. Dissolution therapy versus shock wave lithotripsy for radiolucent renal stones in children: a prospective study. J Urol. 2014 May;191(5 Suppl):1491-1495.

 

Revision Information