Munson Health
Kidney Stones -- Child

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(Renal Colic—Child; Renal Lithiasis—Child; Nephrolithiasis—Child; Renal Calculi—Child)


Risk Factors

These factors increase your child’s chance of developing kidney stones:
  • Dehydration —not drinking enough fluids
  • Eating foods high in salt
  • Eating a ketogenic diet to help control epilepsy
  • Mineral content of water your child drinks (hardness or softness of the water)
  • Having family members who have had kidney stones or gout
  • Having kidney stones in the past
  • Being overweight
  • Medical conditions (eg, urinary tract infections , metabolic conditions)
  • Geographic location (residents of the Southeast United States have an increased risk)
  • Limited physical activity
  • Foreign material in the urinary tract (eg, catheter)


The doctor will ask about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Images of the kidneys and urinary tract may be taken with:
  • Ultrasound—to examine the kidneys
  • KUB (kidney, ureter, bladder)—an x-ray to view the urinary tract
  • Spiral CT scan—to make pictures of the inside of the kidney
  • Intravenous pyelogram (IVP)—a special x-ray that produces images of the urinary system (rarely used)
A 24-hour urine test may also be done to look for levels of minerals in the urine including calcium , phosphorus , uric acid, oxalate, and citrate.


National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Urology Care Foundation



Health Canada

The Kidney Foundation of Canada



Bladder/kidney stones. Cincinnati Children’s Hospital website. Available at: Updated January 2011. Accessed June 25, 2013.

Borghi L, Meschi T, Maggiore U, Prati B. Dietary therapy in idiopathic nephrolithiasis. Nutr Rev. 2006;64:301-312.

Kidney stones. National Kidney Foundation website. Available at: Accessed June 25, 2013.

Nephrolithiasis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Updated May 17, 2013. Accessed June 25, 2013.

6/23/2014 DynaMed's systematic Literature Surveillance Elderwy AA, Kurkar A, et al. Dissolution therapy versus shock wave lithotripsy for radiolucent renal stones in children: a prospective study. J Urol. 2014 May;191(5 Suppl):1491-1495.


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