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Carotid Artery Stenosis

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by Smith DN

(Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis; Carotid Artery Disease)

 

Definition

Carotid artery stenosis occurs when the carotid arteries narrow. The carotid arteries are major arteries found on each side of the neck. They supply blood from the heart to the brain.
This condition is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke . Ischemic stroke is when blood flow to the brain is blocked due to blood clots. Carotid artery stenosis is a potentially serious condition that requires care from your doctor.
Blood Supply to the Brain
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Risk Factors

Risk factors include:
 

Symptoms

There are usually no symptoms. Tell your doctor if you have symptoms of a stroke or a transient ischemic attack (TIA or mini-stroke). This is a warning sign that you may have carotid artery stenosis. Symptoms may include:
  • Blindness, blurry or dim vision
  • Weakness, numbness, or tingling of the face, arm, leg, or one side of the body
  • Difficulty speaking or understanding words
  • Dizziness, unsteadiness of gait, or falling
  • Trouble with balance or coordination
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Sudden confusion or loss of memory
 

Treatment

The goal of treatment is to prevent carotid artery stenosis from causing inadequate blood flow to the brain or causing a stroke. Treatment will depend on:
  • The severity of your condition
  • Your symptoms
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include:

Surgery

Surgery may be needed if the arteries have severe plaque build-up. One kind of surgery is called carotid endarterectomy . This involves opening the artery and cleaning the plaque from it. Another surgery that may be done is carotid angioplasty and stenting. In this surgery, a balloon is inserted into the artery to widen it. Then a metal mesh, called a stent, is inserted to keep the artery open so that blood can flow freely.
 

Prevention

To help reduce your chance of getting carotid artery stenosis, you will need to decrease the risk factors that you can control. For example, you can reduce your cholesterol, blood pressure, and weight. Here are some steps to decrease these risk factors:
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Eat more fruits and vegetables . Limit dietary salt and fat .
  • Stop smoking.
  • If you drink alcohol, do so only in moderation . This means having no more than two drinks per day if you are a man, and no more than one drink per day if you are woman.
  • Maintain a healthy weight .
  • Keep your blood pressure in a safe range. Follow your doctor's recommendations if you have high blood pressure.
  • Keep other conditions under control. This includes high cholesterol and diabetes.
 

RESOURCES

American Heart Association
http://www.americanheart.org/

National Stroke Association
http://www.stroke.org/

 

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada
http://www.heartandstroke.ca/

Prevent Stroke
http://www.preventstroke.ca/

 

References


Buckley L, Schub T. Carotid stenosis. EBSCO Nursing Reference Center website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/thisTopic.php?marketID=16&topicID=860 . Updated October 15, 2010. Accessed December 20, 2010.


Carotid artery stenosis. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4497 . Accessed December 20, 2010.


Carotid artery stenosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated October 6, 2010. Accessed December 20, 2010.


Carotid artery disease. Mayo Clinic website. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/carotid-artery-disease/DS01030 Accessed December 20, 2010.


Carotid artery disease: what is it? Vascular Disease Foundation website. Available at: http://www.vdf.org/diseaseinfo/carotid/ . Updated November 9, 2010. Accessed December 20, 2010.


Lyons S. Peripheral vascular disease. EBSCO Health Library website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary/ . Updated October 18, 2010. Accessed December 20, 2010.


Wood D. Stroke. EBSCO Health Library website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary/ . Updated November 11, 2010. Accessed December 20, 2010.


Wood D. Transient ischemic attack. EBSCO Health Library website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary/ . Updated September 20, 2010. Accessed December 20, 2010.

 

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