Munson Health
 
Research Glossary

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by Jones P
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  • Case-Control Study—In this type of observational study there is no intervention on the part of the researchers. People that already have the health issue of interest are compared to a group of people without the health issue. Researchers review the histories of both groups to search for factors that may be associated with the development of the health issue. This type of study cannot prove a cause of a disease but may highlight important associations (Example: The link between smoking and lung cancer was first suggested by a case control study).
  • Cohort Study—An observational study that looks for outcomes from a particular exposure. A study group that has been exposed is compared to a similar control group that is not exposed. The researchers do not introduce the exposure, it happens as a result of natural circumstances or personal choice (Ex. smoking). Groups are followed over time and outcomes are compared. (Ex. Overtime people that smoke have higher risk of emphysema.)

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