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Human Papillomavirus Vaccine

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by McCoy K

(HPV Vaccine)

 

What Is Human Papillomavirus?

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are a group of more than 100 viruses.
Certain types of HPV can cause genital warts, which are growths or bumps that appear:
  • On the vulva
  • In or around the vagina or anus
  • On the cervix
  • On the penis, scrotum, groin, or thigh
Some strains of HPV are linked to cervical cancer. Although it is less common, some strains are linked to cancers of the vulva, anus, throat, or penis.
HPV is easily spread during oral, genital, or anal sex with an infected partner.
Many people will be exposed to a form of HPV at some point in their lives. Not all will become infected or develop symptoms.
 

What Other Ways Can HPV Be Prevented Besides Vaccination?

Avoiding physical contact with an infected sexual partner is the only way to completely prevent the spread of a genital HPV infection. Latex condoms may help reduce the spread. However, condoms are not 100% effective because they do not cover the entire genital area.
Other preventive measures include:
 


WHERE CAN I GET MORE INFORMATION?

National Cancer Institute
http://www.cancer.gov

Vaccine and Immunizations
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
http://www.cdc.gov

 

References


Carter JR, Ding Z, et al. HPV infection and cervical disease: a review. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2011;51(2):103-108.


Heffernan ME, Garland SM, et al. Global reduction of cervical cancer with human papillomavirus vaccines: insights from the hepatitis B virus vaccine experience. Sex Health. 2010;7(3):383-390.


HPV vaccine (Cervarix): What you need to know. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv-cervarix.html. Updated May 5, 2011. Accessed May 31, 2013.


HPV vaccine (Gardasil): What you need to know. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv-gardasil.html. Updated May 17, 2013. Accessed May 31, 2013.


Human papillomavirus vaccine. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated May 7, 2013. Accessed May 31, 2013.


Immunization schedules. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html . Updated January 29, 2013. Accessed May 31, 2013.


United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. FDA licensure of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4, Gardasil) for use in males and guidance from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2010;59(20):630-632.


Workowski KA, Berman S, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010. MMWR. 2010;59(No. RR-12):1-110.


5/18/2007 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: The FUTURE II Study Group. Quadrivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus to prevent high-grade cervical lesions. N Engl J Med . 2007;356:1915-1927.


10/23/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: FDA approves new indication for Gardasil to prevent genital warts in men and boys. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm187003.htm. Updated April 17, 2013. Accessed May 31, 2013.


1/19/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: Recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 Through 18 years—United States, 2010. MMWR. 2010;58(51&52):1-4.


6/4/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: FDA licensure of bivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV2, Cervarix) for use in females and updated HPV vaccination recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR. 2010;59(20):626-629.


1/4/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: US Food and Drug Administration. Gardasil approved to prevent anal cancer. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm237941.htm. Updated April 18, 2013. Accessed May 31, 2013.

 

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