Munson Health
Menkes Syndrome

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by Badash M

(Kinky Hair Disease; Steely Hair Disease; Trichopoliodystrophy; X-linked Copper Deficiency; Copper Transport Disease)



Children with Menkes are often born prematurely. Symptoms usually begin within 3 months after birth and may include:
  • Seizures
  • Difficulty feeding
  • Developmental delays
  • Floppy muscle tone
Osteoporosis—Weakened Bone Matrix
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
Babies with Menkes syndrome often exhibit the following physical characteristics:
  • Hair that is stubby, tangled, sparse, lacking in color, and easily broken
  • Chubby, rosy cheeks
  • Flattened bridge of the nose
  • Face lacking in expression


The following tests may be done to diagnose Menkes syndrome:
  • X-ray of the skull and skeleton to look for abnormalities in bone formation
  • Blood tests to measure copper levels


National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Office of Rare Diseases Research



About Kids Health

Canadian Organization for Rare Disorders



Menkes syndrome. Genetics Home Reference website. Available at: Updated March 2009. Accessed August 18, 2014.

NINDS Menkes disease information page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Available at: Updated September 30, 2011. Accessed August 18, 2014.


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