Munson Health
 
Brain Tumor and Brain Cancer -- Child

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by Wood D
 

Diagnosis

You will be asked about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Muscle strength, coordination, reflexes, response to stimuli, and alertness will be tested. Your child's eyes may be examined to check for signs of brain swelling.
Pictures may be needed of structures inside your child's body. This can be done with:
A sample of your child's brain tissue may be removed for testing. This will help identify certain characteristics of the tumor. If it is cancer, your doctor will use results from a few different tests to determine the stage of the cancer. The stage help choose the best treatment options and make a prognosis.
 

Treatment

Treatment depends on the type, size, and location of the cancer. It also depends on your child’s overall health. Some treatments can affect nearby healthy tissue. This may lead to physical or mental limitations.

Medications

In some cases, the doctor may advise that your child takes medication, such as:
  • Corticosteroids—to reduce swelling in the brain
  • Anticonvulsants—to prevent seizures

Surgery

Examples of surgical procedures used to treat brain tumors include:
  • Craniotomy —opening the skull to remove the tumor or as much of the tumor as possible
  • Placement of a shunt—a long thin tube is placed in the brain to let fluid drain out of the brain

Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy

Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. The drugs enter the bloodstream and travel through the body killing mostly cancer cells, but also some healthy cells. The drugs may be delivered into cerebrospinal fluid. This is fluid that surrounds the brain tissue.
Radiation therapy is the use of radiation to kill cancer cells or shrink tumors. This is a common treatment for brain tumors. Radiation may be used alone or with chemotherapy. Radiation may be:
  • External radiation therapy—Radiation is directed at the tumor from a source outside the body.
    • If you have a metastatic brain tumor, you will receive whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT). WRBT may also be used in people who have cancer in other areas of the body to prevent brain cancer.
    • If you have a primary brain tumor, you will receive more focused radiation therapy.
  • Internal radiation therapy—Radioactive materials are placed into the body near the cancer cells. This is used less often.
  • Stereotactic radiosurgery—This is a more precise method of delivering higher doses of radiation. It helps to target cancer cells and spare nearby healthy tissue. It is used most often in metastatic brain tumors or in benign brain tumors, such as meningiomas.

Rehabilitation Therapy

Rehabilitation therapy is important to help regain lost skills or learn new ones. Rehabilitation therapy includes:
  • Physical therapy to help with walking, balance, and building strength
  • Occupational therapy to help with mastering life skills, such as dressing, eating, and using the toilet
  • Speech therapy to help express thoughts and overcome swallowing difficulties
Your child may also work with an educational specialist. They can help with the transition back to school and with learning problems.
 

RESOURCES

American Brain Tumor Association
http://www.abta.org

American Cancer Society
http://www.cancer.org

 

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Canadian Cancer Society
http://www.cancer.ca

Cancer Care Ontario
http://www.cancercare.on.ca

 

References


Brain tumor. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated April 25, 2014. Accessed May 27, 2014.


Brain tumor. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/brain. Accessed May 27, 2014.


Brain tumors. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Available at: http://www.aans.org/Patient%20Information/Conditions%20and%20Treatments/Brain%20Tumors.aspx. Updated June 2012. Accessed May 27, 2014.


Brain tumors. Boston Children's Hospital website. Available at: http://www.childrenshospital.org/az/Site659/mainpageS659P0.html. Updated 2013. Accessed May 27, 2014.


Brain tumors. Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin website. Available at: http://www.chw.org/display/router.asp?DocID=22484. Accessed May 27, 2014.


General approach to care for children with brain and spinal cord tumors. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/childbrain/healthprofessional/page3. Updated January 28, 2014. Accessed May 27, 2014.


Pediatric brain and spinal cord tumor center. Comer Children’s Hospital, the University of Chicago website. Available at: http://www.uchicagokidshospital.org/specialties/cancer/brain-spinal/index.html. Accessed May 27, 2014.

 

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