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AIDS Dementia Complex

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by Kerr SJ

(ADC; AIDS Encephalopathy; AIDS-related Dementia; ARD; HIV-associated Dementia Complex; HIV Encephalopathy; HIV Associated Encephalopathy (HAE), HIV associated Cognitive/Motor Complex)

 

Definition

AIDS dementia complex (ADC) can occur in people with AIDS. ADC results in changes in multiple neurologic areas:
  • Cognition—the ability to understand, process, and remember information
  • Behavior—difficulty performing daily tasks
  • Emotions—may have personality changes and depression
  • Motor coordination—the ability to coordinate muscles and movement
ADC is a common nervous system complication of late-stage HIV infection.
Immune System
Immune system white blood cell
HIV destroys white blood cells vital to the immune system.
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
 

Prevention

ADC occurs in people with HIV. Ways to help reduce your chance of getting HIV include:
  • When you have sex, use a male latex condom.
  • Limit your number of sexual partners.
  • Avoid sexual partners who are HIV-infected.
  • Do not share needles for drug injection.
  • Avoid having transfusions of blood products that have not been screened.
  • If you are a healthcare worker:
    • Wear appropriate gloves and facial masks during all procedures.
    • Carefully handle and properly dispose of needles.
    • Carefully follow universal precautions.
  • If you live in a household with someone who has HIV:
    • Wear appropriate gloves if handling HIV-infected bodily fluids.
    • Cover your cuts and sores with bandages. Also cover cuts and sores on the person with HIV.
    • Do not share any personal hygiene items, such as razors or toothbrushes.
    • Carefully handle and properly dispose of needles used for medication.
 

RESOURCES

American Foundation for AIDS Research
http://www.amfar.org

AIDS.gov - U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
http://www.aids.gov

 

CANADIAN RESOURCES

AIDS Committee of Toronto
http://www.actoronto.org

Canadian AIDS Society
http://www.cdnaids.ca

 

References


AIDS dementia complex. University of California at San Francisco website. Available at: http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page=id-01-08. Accessed September 4 ,2013.


HIV-associated dementia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated March 7, 2013. Accessed September 4, 2013.


Luo X, Carlson KA, et al. Macrophage proteomic fingerprinting predicts HIV-1-associated cognitive impairment. Neurology. 2003;60:1931-1937.


Meehan RA, Brush JA. An overview of AIDS dementia complex. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2001;16:225-229.


Nicholas MK, Lukas R, et al. Textbook of Neurological Surgery. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins; 2011: chap 46.

 

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