Munson Health
Nontoxic Nodular Goiter

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by Badash M

(Sporadic Goiter; Simple Goiter; Nodular Enlargement of the Thyroid Gland)



Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Your doctor may recommend a specialist. An endocrinologist focuses on hormone related issues.
Tests may include the following:
  • Examination of the neck—to assess any thyroid enlargement
  • Ultrasound —a test that uses sound waves to identify nodules of the neck and thyroid
  • Blood tests—to assess levels of thyroid hormones (eg, thyroid stimulating hormone); thyroid autoantibodies tests may also be done
  • Thyroid scan (scintigraphy)—a picture of your thyroid gland taken after you have been given a shot or drink of a radioisotope to show how your thyroid is functioning and exclude thyroid cancer
  • Fine needle aspiration biopsy —a tissue sample is taken with a small needle to determine if it is benign or malignant (cancer)
  • Barium swallow —a test to determine if the enlarged goiter is compressing the esophagus, thus causing swallowing difficulty
  • X-ray of neck and chest for large goiters—to see if the trachea is compressed


American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists

The American Thyroid Association

The Hormone Foundation

Thyroid Foundation of America



Canadian Family Physician

Thyroid Foundation of Canada



Bonnema SJ, Bennedbek FN, et al. Management of the nontoxic multinodular goiter: a North American Survey. J Clin Endocrinol Metab . 2002;87:112-117.

Bonnema SJ, Nielsen VE, et al. Improvement of goiter volume reduction after 0.3 mg recombinant human thyrotropin-stimulated radioiodine therapy in patients with a very large goiter: a double-blinded, randomized trail. J Clin Endo Metab . 2007;92:3424-3428.

Diehl LA, Garcia V, Bonnema SJ, et al. Management of the nontoxic multinodular goiter in Latin America: comparison with North America and Europe, an electronic survey. J Clin Endocrinol Metab . 2005;90:117-123.

Freitas JE. Therapeutic options in the management of toxic and nontoxic nodular goiter. Seminars in Nuclear Medicine . 2000;30:88-97.

Hurley DL, Gharib H. Evaluation and management of multinodular goiter. Otolaryngol Clin North Am . 1996;29:527-540.

Kasper DL, et al. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine . 16th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2005.


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