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Nontoxic Nodular Goiter

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by Badash M

(Sporadic Goiter; Simple Goiter; Nodular Enlargement of the Thyroid Gland)

 

Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Your doctor may recommend a specialist. An endocrinologist focuses on hormone related issues.
Tests may include the following:
  • Examination of the neck—to assess any thyroid enlargement
  • Ultrasound—a test that uses sound waves to identify nodules of the neck and thyroid
  • Blood tests—to assess levels of thyroid hormones (eg, thyroid stimulating hormone); thyroid autoantibodies tests may also be done
  • Thyroid scan (scintigraphy)—a picture of your thyroid gland taken after you have been given a shot or drink of a radioisotope to show how your thyroid is functioning and exclude thyroid cancer
  • Fine needle aspiration biopsy—a tissue sample is taken with a small needle to determine if it is benign or malignant (cancer)
  • Barium swallow—a test to determine if the enlarged goiter is compressing the esophagus, thus causing swallowing difficulty
  • X-ray of neck and chest for large goiters—to see if the trachea is compressed
 

RESOURCES

American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
http://www.aace.com

The American Thyroid Association
http://www.thyroid.org

The Hormone Foundation
http://www.hormone.org

Thyroid Foundation of America
http://www.tsh.org

 

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Canadian Family Physician
http://www.cfpc.ca

Thyroid Foundation of Canada
http://www.thyroid.ca

 

References


Bonnema SJ, Bennedbek FN, et al. Management of the nontoxic multinodular goiter: a North American Survey. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:112-117.


Bonnema SJ, Nielsen VE, et al. Improvement of goiter volume reduction after 0.3 mg recombinant human thyrotropin-stimulated radioiodine therapy in patients with a very large goiter: a double-blinded, randomized trail. J Clin Endo Metab. 2007;92:3424-3428.


Diehl LA, Garcia V, Bonnema SJ, et al. Management of the nontoxic multinodular goiter in Latin America: comparison with North America and Europe, an electronic survey. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:117-123.


Freitas JE. Therapeutic options in the management of toxic and nontoxic nodular goiter. Seminars in Nuclear Medicine. 2000;30:88-97.


Hurley DL, Gharib H. Evaluation and management of multinodular goiter. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 1996;29:527-540.


Kasper DL, et al. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 16th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2005.

 

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