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Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma

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by McCoy K

(HHNC; Hyperosmolar Coma; Diabetic Nonketotic Coma; Hyperosmolar Nonketotic State)

 

Definition

Hyperosmolar nonketotic coma occurs in people with diabetes . It is a life-threatening event. Seek medical attention immediately if you think you have any symptoms of an impending hyperosmolar nonketotic coma.
 

Causes

Hyperosmolar nonketotic coma is a complication of very high blood glucose levels. Blood glucose often rises to these levels because of an illness or infection.
The body will try to get rid of the extra blood glucose through the urine. The frequency and volume of urination will increase. Unfortunately, this process also washes out other substances in your blood. Some of these substances are very important to your brain. Low levels of these substances can lead to seizures , coma , and eventually death.
 

RESOURCES

American Diabetes Association
http://www.diabetes.org

National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse
http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov

 

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Canadian Diabetes Association
http://www.diabetes.ca

Health Canada
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

 

References


Chiasson JL, Aris-Jilwan N, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis and the hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state. Can Med Assoc J. 2003;168:859-866.


Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic crisis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated January 12, 2013. Accessed September 4, 2013.


Kim DW, Moon Y, et al. Blood-brain barrier disruption is involved in seizure and hemianopsia in nonketotic hyperglycemia. Neurologist. 2011 May;17(3):164-166.


Kitabchi AE. Hyperglycemic crises in diabetes mellitus: diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2006;35:725-751.


Ondo WG. Hyperglycemic nonketotic states and other metabolic imbalances. Handb Clin Neurol. 2011;100:287-291.


Stoner GD. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state. Am Fam Physician. 2005;71:1723-1730.


Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome (HHNS). American Diabetes Association website. Available at: http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/complications/hyperosmolar-hyperglycemic.html. Accessed September 4, 2013.

 

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