Munson Health
 
Kidney Stones -- Adult

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by Savitsky D

(Renal Colic; Renal Lithiasis; Nephrolithiasis; Renal Calculi)

 

Treatment

Treatment depends on the size and location of the kidney stone. Treatment may include one or more of the following:

Water

For small kidney stones, drinking at least two or three quarts of water a day helps the body pass the stones during urination. You may be given a special cup to catch the stone when it passes so it can be analyzed. If you are having a hard time keeping fluids down, you may need to be hospitalized to receive IV fluids.

Medications

You may be advised to take pain medication. You may also be prescribed medications that may help you pass your kidney stones during urination.

Surgery

Surgery may be needed if the stones are:
  • Very large or growing larger
  • Causing bleeding or damage to the kidney
  • Causing infection
  • Blocking the flow of urine
  • Unable to pass
Ureteroscopy
Ureteroscopy uses a small camera to locate the stones located in the ureter or kidney. Once found, a small basket is used to capture and remove the stones. Larger stones can be broken up into small pieces with a laser.
Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL)
PNL is used to treat large stones located in the kidney. A small incision is made in the lower back. A nephroscope is passed through a tube so the kidney stones can be seen. The stones are broken into smaller pieces and removed. A temporary drain may be left in the incision site.
Lithotomy
Lithotomy is an open surgery used to remove stones. This is rarely used because of the less invasive options available.

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL)

ESWL uses a device called a lithotripter that is applied to the skin. The lithotripter sends shock waves into the body. The impact of the shock waves breaks up the larger stones so they can be passed during urination.
 

RESOURCES

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
http://niddk.nih.gov

Urology Care Foundation
http://www.urologyhealth.org

 

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Health Canada
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

The Kidney Foundation of Canada
http://www.kidney.ca

 

References


Borghi L, Meschi T, et al. Dietary therapy in idiopathic nephrolithiasis. Nutr Rev. 2006;64:301-312.


Clinical Guidelines: Ureteral Calculi (’07). American Urological Association. http://www.auanet.org/content/guidelines-and-quality-care/clinical-guidelines.cfm?sub=uc. Accessed March 3, 2014.


Coe FL, Evan A, Worcester E. Kidney stone disease. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:2598-2608.


Delvecchio FC, Preminger GM. Medical management of stone disease. Curr Opin Urol. 2003 May; 13(3):229-33.


Kang DE, Sur RL, et al. Long-term lemonade based dietary manipulation in patients with hypocitraturic nephrolithiasis. J Urol. 2007;177:1358-1362.


Kidney and uretral stones. Urology Care Foundation website. Available at: http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=148. Updated April 2013. Accessed March 3, 2014.


Kidney stones in adults. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/stonesadults/index.htm. Updated January 28, 2013. Accessed March 3, 2014.


Martini LA, Wood RJ. Should dietary calcium and protein be restricted in patients with nephrolithiasis? Nutr Rev. 2000;58:111-117.


Nephrolithiasis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated January 17, 2014. Accessed March 3, 2014.


Pearle MS, Lingemann JE, et al. Prospective, randomized controlled trial comparing shock wave lithotripsy and ureteroscopy for lower pole caliceal calculi 1 cm or less. J Urol. 2005;173:2005-2009.


Vitamin C. EBSCO Natural and Alternative Treatments website. EBSCO Health Library website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/academic/natural-alternative-treatments. Updated August 2013. Accessed March 3, 2014.


1/4/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Hollingsworth JM, Rogers MA, Kaufman SR, et al. Medical therapy to facilitate urinary stone passage: a meta-analysis. Lancet. 2006;368:1171-1179.


1/4/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Mora B, Giorni E, Dobrovits M, et al. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation: an effective treatment for pain caused by renal colic in emergency care. J Urol. 2006;175:1737-1741; discussion 1741.

 

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