Munson Health
 
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Attention Deficit Disorder

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by Riley J

(ADHD and ADD; Hyperkinetic Syndrome; Hyperkinetic Impulse Disorder)

 

Risk Factors

Factors that increase your chance of developing ADHD include:
 

Treatment

The goal is to improve the child's ability to function. Doctors should work together with parents and school staff. Together, they can set realistic goals and evaluate the child's response.
Treatments include:

Sleep

Children who do not sleep enough may suffer from worse behavioral problems. A key part of treatment is to ensure that children with ADHD get plenty of sleep.

Behavior Therapy

Children who take medication and go to therapy do better than those who just use medication. Therapy sessions focus on practicing social and problem-solving skills. Counselors will also teach parents and teachers to help the child through positive reinforcement. This could involve changes in the classroom, as well as in parenting style. Often, daily report cards are exchanged between parents and teachers.
Other tools, like the Disc'O'Sit cushion, may be helpful in improving children's attention in class. The Disc'O'Sit is a dome-shaped cushion filled with air that the child balances on.
ADHD coaching can also be helpful. These coaches work with individuals to help them organize and create strategies so that they can be more efficient and successful.
 

RESOURCES

Attention Deficit Disorder Association
http://www.add.org

Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD)
http://www.chadd.org

 

CANADIAN RESOURCES

About Kids Health
http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca

Canadian Psychiatric Association
http://www.cpa-apc.org/

 

References


AAP Recommendations and Diagnostic Guidelines for ADHD. American Academy of Pediatrics, Healthy Children website. Available at: http://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/adhd/pages/AAP-Recommendations-Diagnostic-Guidelines-for-ADHD.aspx. Updated October 24, 2011. Accessed October 28, 2011.


Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Management. American Family Physician. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd.html. Accessed August 14, 2012.


ADHD. The Nemours Foundation website. Available at: http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/learning/adhd.html. Accessed August 14, 2012.


Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). National Institute of Mental Health website. Available at: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder/what-is-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder.shtml. Accessed August 14, 2012.


ADHD basics. American Academy of Pediatrics Healthy Children website. Available at: http://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/adhd/Pages/ADHD-Basics.aspx. Accessed August 14, 2012.


Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated April 11, 2012. Accessed August 14, 2012.


Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated April 25, 2012. Accessed August 14, 2012.


Fact sheet ADHD. The National Mental Health Association website. Available at: http://www.nmha.org/go/information/get-info/ad/hd/ad/hd-and-kids. Accessed August 14, 2012.


FDA directs ADHD drug manufacturers to notify patients about cardiovascular adverse events and psychiatric adverse events. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/NEWS/2007/NEW01568.html. Accessed August 14, 2012.


Methylphenidate and clonidine help children with ADHD and tics. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/news%5Fand%5Fevents/news%5Farticles/news%5Farticle%5Fadhd.htm. Accessed August 14, 2012.


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ADHD. American Psychiatric Association website. Available at: http://www.apa.org/topics/adhd/index.aspx. Accessed August 14, 2012.


4/30/2008 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Vetter V, Elia J, Erickson C, et al. Cardiovascular monitoring of children and adolescents with heart disease receiving stimulant drugs. Circulation. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/117/18/2407.full.pdf. Accessed April 30, 2008.


4/30/2008 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Pfeiffer B, Henry A, Miller S, Witherell S. Effectiveness of Disc 'O' Sit cushions on attention to task in second-grade students with attention difficulties. Am J Occup Ther. 2008;62:274-281.


7/6/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Paavonen EJ, Räikkönen K, Lahti J, et al. Short sleep duration and behavioral symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in healthy 7- to 8-year-old children. Pediatrics. 2009;123:e857-864.


10/12/2009 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Cortese S, Faraone SV, Konofal E, Lecendreux M. Sleep in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: meta-analysis of subjective and objective studies. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009;48:894-908.


10/16/2009 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Wilens TE, Vitulano M, Upadhyaya H, et al. Cigarette smoking associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Pediatr. 2008;153:414-419.


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2/4/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Froehlich TE, Lanphear BP, Auinger P, et al. Association of tobacco and lead exposures with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics. 2009;124(6):e1054-1063.


11/19/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Swing EL, Gentile DA, Anderson CA, Walsh DA. Television and video game exposure and the development of attention problems. Pediatrics. 2010;126(2):214-221.


10/28/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Subcommittee on Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder, Steering Committe on Quality Improvement and Management. ADHD: clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2011 Oct 16.


1/13/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Silva D, Colvin L, et al. Environmental risk factors by gender associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics. 2014 Jan;133(1):e14-22.


1/28/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www/ebscohost.com/dynamed: Seida JC, Schouten JR, Mousavi SS, et al. First- and Second-Generation Antipsychotics for Children and Young Adults [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2012 Feb. (Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 39.) Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK84643/. Accessed January 27, 2014.


8/19/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Reilly C, Atkinson P, et al. Neurobehavioral comorbidities in children with active epilepsy: a population-based study. Pediatrics. 2014;133(6):e1586-1593.

 

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