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Preterm Labor

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by Kohnle D
 

Risk Factors

The chance of preterm-labor is greatest in women under the 18 years or over 35 years. Other maternal factors that may increase the chance of preterm labor include:
Pregnancy complications that may increase your risk of preterm labor include:
  • Pre-eclampsia
  • Placental abruption
  • Premature rupture of the membranes
  • Carrying more than one baby
  • Vaginal bleeding after 16 weeks, or during more than one trimester
  • Infection in the cervix, uterus, vagina, or urinary tract including sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
  • Being pregnant with a single fetus after in vitro fertilization (IVF)
  • Presence of a retained intrauterine device
  • Incompetent cervix
  • Too much or too little fluid surrounding the baby
  • Surgery on your abdomen during pregnancy
  • Amniotic fluid infection
  • Intrauterine fetal death
  • Intrauterine growth delay
  • Birth defects in the baby
Other factors associated with an increased chance of preterm labor include:
  • History of one or more spontaneous second-trimester abortions
  • Less than six months between giving birth and the beginning of the next pregnancy
  • A previous preterm birth
  • Uterine fibroids
  • Abnormally shaped uterus
  • Previous bariatric surgery
  • Procedures to remove abnormal cervical cells
 

Diagnosis

Fluids in the cervix will also be tested for sign of labor progression. A tocometer may be placed to help monitor contractions.
 

RESOURCES

American Pregnancy Association
http://americanpregnancy.org

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
http://www.acog.org

 

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Health Canada
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada
http://www.sogc.org

 

References


The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Management of stillbirth. Practice Bulletin. March 2009;102.


Hall R. Prevention of premature birth: do pediatricians have a role? Pediatrics. 2000;105(5):1137-1140.


Premature labor. American Pregnancy Association website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 2007. Accessed October 9, 2012


Preterm labor. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated March 15, 2013. Accessed April 22, 2013.


Prevention of preterm labor and preterm birth. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated January 16, 2013. Accessed April 22, 2013.


10/29/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Bakhireva LN, Schatz M, et al. Asthma control during pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery or impaired fetal growth. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2008;101:137-143.


7/6/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Kumar A, Devi SG, et al. Calcium supplementation for the prevention of pre-eclampsia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2009;104:32-36.


1/22/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Calderon-Margalit R, Qiu C, et al. Risk of preterm delivery and other adverse perinatal outcomes in relation to maternal use of psychotropic medications during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol . 2009;201(6):579.e1-8.


8/23/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: McDonald SD, Han Z, et al.; Knowledge Synthesis Group. Overweight and obesity in mothers and risk of preterm birth and low birth weight infants: systematic review and meta-analyses. BMJ. 2010;341:c3428.


10/25/2012 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Mori R, Ota E, et al. Zinc supplementation for improving pregnancy and infant outcome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Jul 11;7:CD000230.


11/19/2013 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Roos N, Neovius M, et al. Perinatal outcomes after bariatric surgery: nationwide population based matched cohort study. BMJ. 2013;347:f6460.


3/31/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Englund-Ögge L, Brantsæter AL, et al. Maternal dietary patterns and preterm delivery: results from large prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2014 Mar 4;348:g1446.


4/24/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Leventakou V, Roumeliotaki T, et al. Fish intake during pregnancy, fetal growth, and gestational length in 19 European birth cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Mar;99(3):506-16.


4/29/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Huybrechts KF, Sanghani RS, et al. Preterm birth and antidepressant medication use during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2014 Mar 26;9(3):e92778.


6/9/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Brown R, Gagnon R, et al. Cervical insufficiency and cervical cerclage. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2013;35(12):1115-1127.


8/5/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Conner SN, Frey HA, et al. Loop electrosurgical excision procedure and risk of preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 2014;123(4):752-761.

 

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