Munson Health
 
Postconcussion Syndrome

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by Lewy J

(PCS; Persistent PCS)

 

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your chance of having PCS include:
 

Symptoms

PCS symptoms vary from person-to-person. PCS may cause:
  • Headache
  • Lightheadedness
  • Balance problems
  • Nausea
  • Vision problems
  • Being very sensitive to noise and/or light
  • Depression
  • Mood swings
  • Anxiety
  • Irritability
  • Memory problems
  • Concentration problems
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Feeling tired all the time
 

RESOURCES

Brain Injury Association of America
National Help Line: 800-444-6443
http://www.biausa.org

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
http://www.cdc.gov

 

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Canadian Psychiatric Association
http://www.cpa-apc.org

Ontario Brain Injury Association
http://www.obia.on.ca

 

References


Bazarian J, Atabaki S. Predicting postconcussion syndrome after minor traumatic brain injury. Academic Emergency Medicine. 2001;8:788-795.


Bruhns J, Jagoda A. Mild traumatic brain injury. Mt Sinai J Med. 2009;76:129-137.


Concussion and mild TBI. Centers for Disease Control website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/concussion/index.html . Updated August 15, 2013. Accessed August 5, 2013.


Concussion and mild traumatic brain injury. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated July 10, 2013. Accessed August 5, 2013.


Duff J. The usefulness of quantitative EEG (QEEG) and neurotherapy in the assessment and treatment of post-concussion syndrome. Clin EEG Neurosci. 2004;35:198-209.


Evans RW. The postconcussion syndrome and whiplash injuries: a question-and-answer review for primary care physicians. Prim Care. 2004; 31:1-17.


Jagoda A, Bazarian J, Bruns J, et al. American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP)/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Panel. Clinical policy: neuroimaging and decision making in adult mild traumatic brain injury in the acute setting. Ann Emerg Med. 2008; 52(6):714-748.


McCauley SR, Boake C, Levin HS, Contant CF, Song JX. Postconcussional disorder following mild to moderate traumatic brain injury: anxiety, depression, and social support as risk factors and comorbidities. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2001;23:792-808.


Mittenberg W, Canyock EM, Condit D, Patton C. Treatment of post-concussion syndrome following mild head injury. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2001;23:829-836.


Postconcussion syndrome: why this diagnosis is controversial and what treatments may help. Harvard Mental Health Letter. 2007;24:6.


Potential effects of TBI. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/TraumaticBrainInjury/outcomes.html . Updated September 25, 2012. Accessed August 5, 2013.


Thornton KE, Carmody DP. Electroencephalogram biofeedback for reading disability and traumatic brain injury. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005;14:137-62,vii.


Zemek RL, Farion KJ, et al. Prognosticators of persistent symptoms following pediatric concussion: a systematic review. JAMA Pediatr. 2013;167(3):259-265.

 

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